Copley medal

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Copley medal on teaduspreemia, mida annab välja Londoni Kuninglik Ühing. Preemia antakse välja silmapaistvate saavutuste eest erinevates bioloogia ja füüsika teadussuundades. Copley medal antakse välja igal aastal ning on tõenäoliselt vanim ja siiani kõige kauem välja antud teaduspreemia maailmas. Esimene preemia anti välja 1731. aastal Stephen Gray'le.

Medali laureaadid[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

Aasta Nimi
1731 Stephen Gray
1732 Stephen Gray
1733 -
1734 John Theophilus Desaguliers
1735 -
1736 John Theophilus Desaguliers
1737 John Belchier
1738 James Valoue
1739 Stephen Hales
1740 Alexander Stuart
1741 John Theophilus Desaguliers
1742 Christopher Middleton
1743 Abraham Trembley
1744 Henry Baker
1745 William Watson
1746 Benjamin Robins
1747 Gowin Knight
1748 James Bradley
1749 John Harrison
1750 George Edwards
1751 John Canton
1752 John Pringle
1753 Benjamin Franklin
1754 William Lewis
1755 John Huxham
1756 -
1757 Lord Charles Cavendish
1758 John Dollond
1759 John Smeaton
1760 Benjamin Wilson
1761 -
1762 -
1763 -
1764 John Canton
1765 -
1766 William Brownrigg, Edward Delaval ja Henry Cavendish
1767 John Ellis
1768 Peter Woulfe
1769 William Hewson
1770 William Hamilton
1771 Matthew Raper
1772 Joseph Priestley
1773 John Walsh
1774 -
1775 Nevil Maskelyne
1776 James Cook
1777 John Mudge
1778 Charles Hutton
1779 .
1780 Samuel Vince
1781 William Herschel
1782 Richard Kirwan
1783 John Goodricke ja Thomas Hutchins
1784 Edward Waring
1785 William Roy
1786 -
1787 John Hunter
1788 Charles Blagden
1789 William Morgan
1790 -
1791 James Rennell ja Jean-André Deluc
1792 Benjamin Thompson
1793 -
1794 Alessandro Volta
1795 Jesse Ramsden
1796 George Atwood
1797 -
1798 George Shuckburgh-Evelyn ja Charles Hatchett
1799 John Hellins
1800 Edward Charles Howard
1801 Astley Cooper
1802 William Hyde Wollaston
1803 Richard Chenevix
1804 Smithson Tennant
1805 Humphry Davy
1806 Thomas Andrew Knight
1807 Everard Home
1808 William Henry
1809 Edward Troughton
1810 -
1811 Benjamin Collins Brodie
1812 -
1813 William Thomas Brande
1814 James Ivory
1815 David Brewster
1816 -
1817 Henry Kater
1818 Robert Seppings
1819 -
1820 Hans Christian Ørsted
1821 Edward Sabine ja John Herschel
1822 William Buckland
1823 John Pond
1824 John Brinkley
1825 François Arago ja Peter Barlow
1826 James South
1827 William Prout ja Henry Foster
1828 -
1829 -
1830 -
1831 George Biddell Airy
1832 Michael Faraday ja Siméon Denis Poisson
1833 -
1834 Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
1835 William Snow Harris
1836 Jöns Jacob Berzelius ja Francis Kiernan
1837 Antoine César Becquerel ja John Frederic Daniell
1838 Carl Friedrich Gauss ja Michael Faraday
1839 Robert Brown
1840 Justus von Liebig ja Jacques Charles François Sturm
1841 Georg Ohm
1842 James MacCullagh
1843 Jean-Baptiste Dumas
1844 Carlo Matteucci
1845 Theodor Schwann
1846 Urbain Le Verrier
1847 John Herschel
1848 John Couch Adams
1849 Roderick Murchison
1850 Peter Andreas Hansen
1851 Richard Owen
1852 Alexander von Humboldt
1853 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
1854 Johannes Peter Müller
1855 Léon Foucault
1856 Henri Milne-Edwards
1857 Michel Eugène Chevreul
1858 Charles Lyell
1859 Wilhelm Eduard Weber
1860 Robert Bunsen
1861 Louis Agassiz
1862 Thomas Graham
1863 Adam Sedgwick
1864 Charles Darwin
1865 Michel Chasles
1866 Julius Plücker
1867 Karl Ernst von Baer
1868 Charles Wheatstone
1869 Henri Victor Regnault
1870 James Prescott Joule
1871 Julius von Mayer
1872 Friedrich Wöhler
1873 Hermann von Helmholtz
1874 Louis Pasteur
1875 August Wilhelm von Hofmann
1876 Claude Bernard
1877 James Dwight Dana
1878 Jean-Baptiste Boussingault
1879 Rudolf Clausius
1880 James Joseph Sylvester
1881 Charles-Adolphe Wurtz
1882 Arthur Cayley
1883 William Thomson
1884 Carl Ludwig
1885 August Kekulé
1886 Franz Ernst Neumann
1887 Joseph Dalton Hooker
1888 Thomas Henry Huxley
1889 George Salmon
1890 Simon Newcomb
1891 Stanislao Cannizzaro
1892 Rudolf Virchow
1893 George Stokes
1894 Edward Frankland
1895 Karl Weierstrass
1896 Karl Gegenbaur
1897 Albert von Kölliker
1898 William Huggins
1899 Lord Rayleigh
1900 Marcellin Berthelot
1901 Josiah Willard Gibbs
1902 Joseph Lister
1903 Eduard Suess
1904 William Crookes
1905 Dmitri Mendeleev
1906 Élie Metchnikoff
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson
1908 Alfred Russel Wallace
1909 George William Hill
1910 Francis Galton
1911 George Darwin
1912 Felix Klein
1913 Ray Lankester
1914 Joseph John Thomson
1915 Ivan Pavlov
1916 James Dewar
1917 Pierre Paul Émile Roux
1918 Hendrik Lorentz
1919 William Bayliss
1920 Horace Tabberer Brown
1921 Joseph Larmor
1922 Ernest Rutherford
1923 Horace Lamb
1924 Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
1925 Albert Einstein
1926 Frederick Gowland Hopkins
1927 Charles Scott Sherrington
1928 Charles Algernon Parsons
1929 Max Planck
1930 William Henry Bragg
1931 Arthur Schuster
1932 George Ellery Hale
1933 Theobald Smith
1934 John Scott Haldane
1935 Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
1936 Arthur Evans
1937 Henry Dale
1938 Niels Bohr
1939 Thomas Hunt Morgan
1940 Paul Langevin
1941 Thomas Lewis
1942 Robert Robinson
1943 Joseph Barcroft
1944 G. I. Taylor
1945 Oswald Avery
1946 Edgar Adrian
1947 G. H. Hardy
1948 Archibald Hill
1949 George de Hevesy
1950 James Chadwick
1951 David Keilin
1952 Paul Dirac
1953 Albert Kluyver
1954 E. T. Whittaker
1955 Ronald Fisher
1956 Patrick Blackett
1957 Howard Florey
1958 John Edensor Littlewood
1959 Frank Macfarlane Burnet
1960 Harold Jeffreys
1961 Hans Adolf Krebs
1962 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
1963 Paul Fildes
1964 Sydney Chapman
1965 Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
1966 William Lawrence Bragg
1967 Bernard Katz
1968 Tadeusz Reichstein
1969 Peter Medawar
1970 Alexander R. Todd
1971 Norman Pirie
1972 Nevill Francis Mott
1973 Andrew Huxley
1974 W. V. D. Hodge
1975 Francis Crick
1976 Dorothy Hodgkin
1977 Frederick Sanger
1978 Robert Burns Woodward
1979 Max Perutz
1980 Derek Barton
1981 Peter D. Mitchell
1982 John Cornforth
1983 Rodney Robert Porter
1984 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
1985 Aaron Klug
1986 Rudolf Peierls
1987 Robin Hill
1988 Michael Atiyah
1989 César Milstein
1990 Abdus Salam
1991 Sydney Brenner
1992 George Porter
1993 James Watson
1994 Frederick Charles Frank
1995 Frank Fenner
1996 Alan Cottrell
1997 Hugh Huxley
1998 James Lighthill
1999 John Maynard Smith
2000 Alan R. Battersby
2001 Jacques Miller
2002 John Pople
2003 John Gurdon
2004 Harry Kroto
2005 Paul Nurse
2006 Stephen Hawking
2007 Robert May
2008 Roger Penrose
2009 Martin Evans
2010 David Cox ja Tomas Lindahl
2011 Dan McKenzie
2012 John Walker
2013 Andre Geim
2014 Alec Jeffreys
2015 Peter Higgs
2016 Richard Henderson
2017 Andrew Wiles