Kongo Kuningriik

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Kongo Kuningriik


Wene wa Kongo / Kongo dya Ntotila (kongo)
Reino do Congo (portugali)
1390–1914
Flag of the Kingdom of Kongo.svg
Coat of arms of Kongo.svg
Lipp (17. saj)
Vapp (1528–1541)
KingdomKongo1711.png
Valitsusvorm Monarhia
Kuningas Lukeni lua Nimi
(esimene, 1390–1420)
Manuel III
(viimane, 1911–1914)
Pealinn M'banza-Kongo
Religioon BuKongo
Katoliiklus
Antonianism (1704–1708)
Pindala 129 400 km² (1650)
Rahvaarv 500 000 (1650)
3,9 in/km²
Peamised keeled Kongo keel
Portugali keel
Rahaühik Nzimbu merikarbid
Raffiapalmiriie
Eelnev Järgnev
Mpemba Kasi Kuningriik
Mbata Kuningriik
Kongo Rahvusvaheline Assotsiatsioon
Portugal Portugali Angola
Prantsusmaa Prantsuse Kongo

Kongo Kuningriik (kongo keeles Kongo dya Ntotila või Wene wa Kongo, portugali keeles Reino do Congo) oli kuningriik Aafrika keskosas, tänapäeva Põhja-Angola, Lääne-Kongo DV ja Kongo Vabariigi aladel.[1][2][3][4][5] Oma kõrgajal laius Kongo Kuningriik Atlandi ookeanist Kwango jõeni ja Kongo jõest Cuanza jõeni. Kuningriik koosnes provintsidest, mida valitsesid manikongod (portugalikeelne variant kongokeelsest tiitlist Mwene Kongo ehk "Kongo Kuningriigi valitseja"). Riigi mõjusfäär ulatus ka naaberriikidesse, nagu Ngoyo, Kakongo, Loango, Ndongo ja Matamba.[6]

Kongo Kuningriik oli iseseisev u 1390–1862.[7] Aastani 1914 oli riik sisuliselt Portugali vasall.[8] Aastal 1914 surusid portugallased Kongo mässu maha ning kaotasid sealse monarhia. Kongo kuninga tiitel taastati aastal 1915 ning kuni 1975. aastani oli see reaalse võimuta tseremoniaalne tiitel.[9][10] Kongo Kuningriigi alad liideti Portugali Angola, Belgia Kongo ja Cabinda Protektoraadiga. Aastal 1986 asutatud Bundu dia Kongo liikumine püüdleb Angolast, Kongo Demokraatlikust Vabariigist ja Kongo Vabariigist lahku löömise ja Kongo Kuningriigi taastamise poole.[11]

Vaata ka[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

Viited[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

  1. Can also be written as Kongo dia Ntotila and Kongo dia Ntotela. The Kongo empire can be called Kintotila kia Kongo.
  2. Schemmel, B. (2008). "Traditional Polities". Vaadatud 24. jaanuaril 2008.
  3. Thornton, John; Linda M. Heywood (2007). Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585–1660. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lk 57. ISBN 978-0-521-77065-1.
  4. Fryer, Peter (2000). Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. Lk 158.
  5. M'Bokolo, Elikia (1995). Afrique Noire: Histoire et Civilisations, jusqu'au XVIIIème sicècle. Kd I. Paris: Hatier. ISBN 2-218-03881-1.
  6. Thornton, John (1977). "Demography and History in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1550–1750". The Journal of African History. 18 (4): 526. DOI:10.1017/s0021853700015693. S2CID 162627912.
  7. Tshilemalema, Mukenge (2001). Culture and Customs of the Congo. Greenwood Press. Lk 18. ISBN 0-313-31485-3.
  8. Leander (18. mai 2016). "Kingdom of Kongo 1390 – 1914". South African History Online. Vaadatud 23. veebruaril 2019.
  9. Alisa LaGamma, Kongo: Power and Majesty, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2015, p. 15
  10. Jelmer Vos, Kongo in the Age of Empire 1860–1913: The Breakdown of a Moral Order, The University of Wisconsin Press, 2015, p. 151
  11. "Bundu dia Kongo". Global Security. Vaadatud 26. detsembril 2007.

Kirjandus[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

Allikad[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

Dokumentaalkogud[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

  • Brásio, António. Monumenta Missionaria Africana 15 volumes. Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colonias and others, 1952–1988.
  • Cuvelier, Jean and Louis Jadin. L'ancien Congo après les archives romaines Brussels, 1954.
  • Jadin, Louis. L'ancien Congo et l'Angola 1639–1655 d'après les archives romaines, Portugaises, Néerlandaises et Espagnoles 3 vols., Brussels: Institut historique belge de Rome, 1975.
  • Paiva Manso, Levy Jordão. História de Congo (Documentos) Lisbon, 1877.

Raamatud ja dokumendid[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

  • Anguiano, Juan Mateo d'. Missiones Capuchinas en Africa. ed. Buenaventura de Carrocera, 2 vols., Madrid, 1950.
  • Atri, Marcellino d'. mod ed. Carlo Toso, L'anarchia congolese nel sec. XVII. La relazione inedita di Marcellino d'Atri. Genoa: Bozzi, 1984.
  • W. Holman Bentley, Pioneering on the Congo, London, 1900.
  • Cadornega, António de Oliveira de. História geral das guerras angolanas (1680–81). ed. José Matias Delgado and Manuel Alves da Cunha. 3 vols. Lisbon, 1942–44 (reprinted, 1972).
  • Carli, Dionigio da Piacenza. Il Moro transportado nell'inclita città di Venezia. Bassano, 1687.
  • Carli, Dionigio da Piacenza. Viaggio del Padre Michael Angelo de Guattini da Reggio et del P. Dionigi de Carli da Piacensa...Regno del Congo. (Bologna, 1674). Mod. ed. Francesco Surdich, Milan, 1997. French translation, Michel Chandeigne, Paris, 2006.
  • [Cardoso, Mateus] História do reino de Congo ed. António Brásio, Lisbon, 1969. French translation François Bontinck, 1972.
  • Cavazzi da Montecuccolo, Giovanni Antonio. Istorica Descrizione de tre regni Congo, Matamba ed Angola (Bologna, 1687). Portuguese translation by Graziano Saccardo da Luggazano, 2 vols., Lisbon, 1965.
  • Dapper, Olfried. Naukeurige beschrijvinge der Africa gewesten. (Amsterdam, 1668) English translation, John Ogilby, London, 1670.
  • Franco, António. Synopsis Annalium societatis Jesu in Lusitania ab anno 1540 usque ad annum 1725. Augsburg, 1726.
  • Gallo, Bernardo da. "Conto delle Villacazione Missionale..." pub in Carlo Toso, ed. Una pagina poco nota di storia congolese Rome: Edizioni pro Sanctitate, 1999.
  • Lucca, Lorenzo da. Letters, mod. trans. Jean Cuvelier, Relations sur le Congo du Père Laurent de Lucques. Brussels, 1954.
  • Merolla da Sorrento, Girolamo. Breve e succinta relatione del viaggio nel Congo. Naples, 1692, 2nd ed. 1726.
  • Montesarchio, Girolamo da. "Viaggio al Gongho (1669)." mod. ed. Calogero Piazza, La prefetura apostolica del Congo alla metà del XVII secolo. La Relazione inedita di Girolamo da Montesarchio. Milan, 1976.
  • Pavia, Andrea da. "Viaggio Apostolico" pub. in Carlo Toso, ed. "Viaggio apostolico in Africa de Andrea da Pavia (inedito del sec. XVII). Rome, 2000.
  • Pigafetta, Filippo. Relatione del Regno di Congo et delle circonvince contrade tratta dalli scritti e ragionamenti di Oduarte Lopez Portuguese. Rome, 1591. English translation, Abraham Hartwell, 1594; Ann Hutchinson, 1888.
  • Roma, Giovanni Francesco da. Breve relatione del successo della missione de' frati minori cappuccini del serafico P. S. Francesco al regno del Congo. Rome, 1648 (2nd ed. 1649). French translation, François Bontinck, 1964.
  • Zucchelli, Antonio da Gradisca. Relatione del viaggio e missione di Congo nell'Ethiopia inferiore occidentale Venice, 1712.

Kirjandus[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]

  • Bouveignes, Olivier de Les anciens rois du Congo, Namur: Grands Lacs, 1948.
  • David Birmingham, Trade and Conquest in Angola. Oxford and London: Oxford University Press, 1966.
  • Cécile Fromont, The Art of Conversion: Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
  • Cécile Fromont, Images on a Mission in Early Modern Kongo and Angola. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2022.
  • Ann Hilton, The Kingdom of Kongo Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  • Karl Edvard Laman,The Kongo. 4 vols. 1954–68.
  • Graziano Saccardo, Congo e Angola con la storia dell'antica missione dei Cappuccini 3 vols., Venice, 1982–83.
  • John K. Thornton, The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641–1718.
  • John K. Thornton The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1683–1706 Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • John K. Thornton. "The Origins and Early History of the Kingdom of Kongo," International Journal of African Historical Studies 34/1 (2001): 89–120.
  • Jan Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna, Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
  • Phyllis M. Martin, Power, Cloth and Currency on the Loango Coast, University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.
  • E. Dartevelle, Les Nzimbu, monnaie du royaume du Congo, Bruxelles, 1953.
  • Douglas L. Wheeler, Nineteenth-Century African Protest in Angola: Prince Nicolas of Kongo (1830?–1860), Boston University African Studies Center, 1968.
  • David Birmingham, A Short History of Modern Angola, Oxford University Press, 2016.
  • Patrício Batsîkama, A Catedral de São Salvador de Angola: História e Memória de um Lugar Mítico, Universidade Fernando Pessoa Porto, 2011.
  • Lussunzi Vita Mbala, La société Kongo face à la colonisation portugaise 1885-1961, Paari éditeur, 2021.
  • Jelmer Vos, Empire, patronage and a revolt in the kingdom of Kongo, Old Dominion University, 2017.
  • Patrício Batsîkama Mampuya Cipriano, Nação, nacionalidade e nacionalismo em Angola, Universidade Fernando Pessoa Porto, 2015.
  • Ronald H. Chilcote, Protest and resistance in Angola and Brazil: Comparative studies, University of California Press, 1972.
  • Jelmer Vos, Kongo in the Age of Empire, 1860–1913: The Breakdown of a Moral Order, University of Wisconsin Press, 2015.
  • Martin Yandesa Mavuzi, Histoire et numismatique des monnaies du Congo du XVe siècle à nos jours ou Les monnaies du Congo – L’histoire et la numismatique, Weyrich Edition, 2015.
  • Afonso's letters are all published, along with most of the documents relating to his reign, in:
António Brásio, Monumenta Missionaria Africana (1st series, 15 volumes, Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1952–88), vols. 1, 2 and 4.

Välislingid[muuda | muuda lähteteksti]