Taiwani keeled: erinevus redaktsioonide vahel

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'''Taiwani keeled''' on [[Taiwani põlisrahvad|Taiwani põlisrahvaste]] keeled.
 
Taiwani ametlikult tunnustatud põlisrahvad moodustavad praegu umbes 2% Taiwani rahvastikust.<ref>Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan ''[http://www.apc.gov.tw/en/statistic/number2.aspx name="lqmnZ"Statistics of Indigenous Population in Taiwan and Fukien Areas"]''.</ref> Sajandeid kestnud keelenihke tagajärjel on oms põliskeele kõnelejaid nende seas vähe. Umbes 26 Taiwani põliskeelest on vähemalt 10 välja [[Surnud keeled|surnud]], 4–5 [[väljasurevad keeled|välja suremas]]<ref name="zeit">Zeitoun, Elizabeth & Ching-Hua Yu ''[http://aclclp.org.tw/clclp/v10n2/v10n2a2.pdf "The Formosan Language Archive: Linguistic Analysis and Language Processing"]''. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. Volume 10, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 167-200</ref><ref name="tsu">Li, Paul Jen-kuei and Shigeru Tsuchida. 2006 [In press] Kavalan Dictionary《噶瑪蘭語詞典》. Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica Monograph Series No.A19. Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref> ning mitu suuremal või vähemal määral [[ohustatud keeled|ohus]].
 
Taiwani põliskeeled on tähtsad [[ajalooline keeleteadus|ajaloolise keeleteaduse]] seisukohalt, kuna tõenäoliselt kujunes Taiwanil kogu [[austroneesia keeled|Austroneesia hõimkond]]. Keeleteadlase [[Robert Blust]]i väitel moodustavad Taiwani keeled Austroneesia keelte kümnest harust üheksa<ref>Blust, R. (1999). name="Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics.pFbk5" Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref>, samas kui kümnendasse harru ([[Malai-Polüneesia keeled]]) kuulub ligi 1200 keelt väljaspool Taiwani.<ref>Diamond, Jared M. ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20060916193454/http://faculty.washington.edu/plape/pacificarchwin06/readings/Diamond%20nature%202000.pdf name="Taiwan's gift to the worldxrbBQ"]''. Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709-710</ref> Ehkki teised uurijad ei nõustu Blusti seisukohtadega kõigis üksikasjades, on Austroneesia keelte Taiwani päritolu üldtunnustatud.<ref>Fox, James J.''[http://web.archive.org/web/20061012145718/http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/43158/1/Comparative_Austronesian_Studies.pdf name="Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies6N4jZ"]''. Paper prepared for Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali 19-20 August 2004.</ref> Seda teooriat toetavad ka hiljutised uuringud inimpopulatsioonide geneetikas.<ref>Trejaut JA, Kivisild T, Loo JH, Lee CL, He CL, ''et al.''(2005) [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv?requestname=get-pdf&file=10.1371_journal.pbio.0030247-p-S.pdf"BLZI3" ''Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations.''] PLoS Biol 3(8): e247.</ref>
<!-- <ref>Whyte, A. L. H. ''[http://muse.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/access.cgi?uri=/journals/human_biology/v077/77.2whyte.pdf "Human Evolution in Polynesia"]''. [http://wsupress.wayne.edu/journals/humanbio/humanbiologyj.html Human Biology], Volume 77, Number 2, April 2005, pp. 157-177.
</ref><ref>Underhill, P. A. ''et al.'' ''[http://www.google.co.nz/url?sa=U&q=http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/humu.23 "Maori origins, Y-chromosome haplotypes and implications for human history in the Pacific"]''. Human Mutation,
Volume 17, Issue 4, pp. 271-280.</ref><ref>Chu C. C. ''et al.'' ''[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/tan/2001/00000058/00000001/art00002 "Diversity of HLA among Taiwan’s indigenous tribes and the Ivatans in the Philippines"]''. [http://journals.munksgaard.dk/tissueantigens Tissue Antigens], Volume 58, Number 1, July 2001, pp. 9-18(10).</ref> -->
 
==Taiwani keelte olukord==
Kõik Taiwani keeled on aegamisi taandumas kultuuriliselt domineeriva [[hiina keel]]e ees. Viimastel aastakümnetel on [[Hiina Vabariik|Hiina Vabariigi]] valitsus alustanud põliskeelte toetusprogrammi, mille käigus taastati Taiwani keelte õpetus koolides. Keelte säilimise seisukohast ei ole loodetud edu saavutatud.<ref>Lee, Hui-chi Lee (2004). ''A Survey of Language Ability, Language Use and Language Attitudes of Young Aborigines in Taiwan.'' In Hoffmann, Charlotte & Jehannes Ytsma (Eds.) [http://www.multilingual-matters.com/multi/display.asp?isbname=1853596922"t4sbf" Trilingualism in Family, School, and Community] pp.101-117. Clevedon, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-85359-693-0</ref> <ref>Huteson, Greg.name="COig5" (2003). [http://www.sil.org/silesr/2003/silesr2003-012.pdf ''Sociolinguistic survey report for the Tona and Maga dialects of the Rukai Language.''] SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2003-012, Dallas, TX: SIL International.</ref>
 
==Keelte loend==
* [[Bununi keel]] (väga erinevad murded)
* [[Kanakanabu keel]] (väljasurev)
* [[Kavalani keel]] (mõnes allikas<ref name="zeit" /> paigutatud väljasurevate hulka, kuid see pole veel päris kindel<ref name="tsu" />)
* [[Paivani keel]]
* [[Pujuma keel]]
Enamik Taiwani keeli kasutab verbiga algavat [[sõnajärg]]e ([[VSO]] või [[VOS]]). Erandiks on mõned [[Põhja-Taiwani keeled]] [[thao keel|thao]], [[saisiati keel|saisiati]] ja [[kulon-paze keel|kulon-paze keel]], arvatavasti hiina keele mõjul.
 
Li (1998) loetleb rea Taiwani keelte sõnajärgesid<ref>Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1998. name="台灣南島語言 [The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan].TLV9x" In Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2004. Selected Papers on Formosan Languages. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.</ref>:
 
*atajali keel: VSO, VOS
 
== Viited ==
{{viited}}|allikad=
<ref name="zeit">Zeitoun, Elizabeth & Ching-Hua Yu ''[http://aclclp.org.tw/clclp/v10n2/v10n2a2.pdf "The Formosan Language Archive: Linguistic Analysis and Language Processing"]''. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. Volume 10, No. 2, June 2005, pp. 167-200</ref>
<ref name="tsu">Li, Paul Jen-kuei and Shigeru Tsuchida. 2006 [In press] Kavalan Dictionary《噶瑪蘭語詞典》. Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica Monograph Series No.A19. Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref>
<ref name="lqmnZ">Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan ''[http://www.apc.gov.tw/en/statistic/number2.aspx "Statistics of Indigenous Population in Taiwan and Fukien Areas"]''.</ref>
<ref name="pFbk5">Blust, R. (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics." Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref>
<ref name="xrbBQ">Diamond, Jared M. ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20060916193454/http://faculty.washington.edu/plape/pacificarchwin06/readings/Diamond%20nature%202000.pdf "Taiwan's gift to the world"]''. Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709-710</ref>
<ref name="6N4jZ">Fox, James J. ''[http://web.archive.org/web/20061012145718/http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/43158/1/Comparative_Austronesian_Studies.pdf "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies"]''. Paper prepared for Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali 19-20 August 2004.</ref>
<ref name="BLZI3">Trejaut JA, Kivisild T, Loo JH, Lee CL, He CL, ''et al.''(2005) [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv?request=get-pdf&file=10.1371_journal.pbio.0030247-p-S.pdf ''Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations.''] PLoS Biol 3(8): e247.</ref>
<ref name="t4sbf">Lee, Hui-chi Lee (2004). ''A Survey of Language Ability, Language Use and Language Attitudes of Young Aborigines in Taiwan.'' In Hoffmann, Charlotte & Jehannes Ytsma (Eds.) [http://www.multilingual-matters.com/multi/display.asp?isb=1853596922 Trilingualism in Family, School, and Community] pp.101-117. Clevedon, Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-85359-693-0</ref>
<ref name="COig5">Huteson, Greg. (2003). [http://www.sil.org/silesr/2003/silesr2003-012.pdf ''Sociolinguistic survey report for the Tona and Maga dialects of the Rukai Language.''] SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2003-012, Dallas, TX: SIL International.</ref>
<ref name="TLV9x">Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1998. "台灣南島語言 [The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan]." In Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2004. Selected Papers on Formosan Languages. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.</ref>
}}
 
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