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WOMEN IN POWER 1900-1940

Female leaders and women in other positions of political authority of independent states and self-governing understate entities

  • 1900-18 Regent Dowager Rani Girraj Kaur of Bharatpur (India)

She acted for regent for her son Shri Maharaja Sirurijendra Sawaikishnan Singh (1898-1900-1928-29) after her husband was deposed. Son also deposed. His son was Maharaja Brijendra (1918-28-95).

  • 1900-13 Ratu Petronella da Costa of Lidak (Indonesia)

She succeeded father, Alexander da Costa, and abdicated in favour of her brother, Raja Josef da Costa (also named Jozef da Costa or Siriman) who had succeeded their mother Ratu Petronella da Costa as ruler of Djeniloe. Two other brothers were also rajas: adopted Raja of Naitimoe and Raja of Fialarang. From 1913 the Dutch merge the small principalities together, because fewer and bigger political entities would make it for the Dutch more easier to rule the area. So in 1914 Naitimoe, Lidak and Djeniloe officially became the new federation Kakoelak Mesak, with Raja Josef da Costa as Raja and the following year he became ruler of the Federation of the Northern Part of Belu.

  • Around 1900 I-Tenri Pada Sultana Siti Aisha, Arung of Barru (Indonesia)

Married to H.H. Sri Sultan Muhammad Idris ibni Sultan 'Abdu'l Kadir Muhammad 'Aidid, Sultan of Gowa.

  • 1901-26 H.H. Sikander Saulat, Iftikhar ul-Mulk, Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)

1901-02 Chief Minister of Bhopal Also known as Sarkar Amman, she succeeded her mother, Sikander Begum. She was a forceful ruler, and reformed the administration of state. She attended the coronation of George V in 1911 dressed in a burqa with her awards worn on the outside. During the trip, she visited Paris, k a spa in Bad Nauenheim in Germany, spend a week in Génève and traveled by the Orient Express to Istanbul, where she met the sultan-emperor, Mehmet Reshad. She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague. Later that year she attended the Imperial Dunbar in Delhi. In 1926 she returned to London to settle the rules of succession in a British court. She abdicated in favor of son while still in London, and after some further legal conundrum, her granddaughter, Abida was declared heir apparent. Sultan Jahan argued in favor of the rights of the firstborn, regardless of gender. After her abdication, she became an advocate of women’s rights, and in 1928 she discarded purdah. Shah Jahan lived (1858-1930).

  • 1901-85 Senior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini, Vanchi Dharma Vardhini, Raja Rajeshwari, Rani Setu Lakshmi Bai Maharaja of Attingal, The Senior Maharani of Travancore (India)

1924-31 Regent of Travancore She was adopted into the Royal House of Travancore by her maternal grand-aunt in 1900. In 1924, she became Regent for her infant nephew and was granted the style of Highness and title of Maharani. She was married to M.R.Ry. Rama Varma Avargal, Valia Koil Tampuran, and was mother of two daughters. She lived (1895-1985).

  • 1901-83 Junior Rani H.H. Maharani Setu Parvati Bal of Attingal, The Junior Maharani of Travancore (India)

Sister of Rani Setu Lakshmi Bai. She was granted the personal title of Maharani in 1924 with the style of Her Highness, from 1933. She was Pro-Chancellor of. Travancore University and married to M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran. Mother of issue, four sons and one daughter, and lived (1896-1983).

  • Until 1902 Datuk I-Madellung Karaeng Kajuwara, Datu of Supa (Ajataparang) (Indonesia)

Succeeded another female ruler; Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseemba, who ascended the throne in 1860. She was succeeded by nephew and husband of her daughter Besse Bulo, H.H. Haji Andi La Mappanjuki Karaeng Silayar Sri Sultan Ibrahim ibnu Sultan Husain, who was Arumpone of Bone in 1931-46 and 1950-60 trough his mother We Tan-ri Padarang, Princess of Alita, eldest daughter of H.H. La Parenrengi Paduka Sri Sultan Ahmad, Arumpone of Bone. Madellung (d. 1902).

  • After 1903 Chief Muyelaansime of Nkokolo (Tanzania)

Succeeded brother, Mutitimia, who died 1903, and some time later succeeded by his daughter, Chiefess Ng’endo.

  • 1903-16 Head of the Sovereign Family Titular Queen Laure-Therese I of Araucania and Patagonia (Chile-Argentina)

She was the fourth sovereign of the Kingdom founded in 1860 by the Mapuche Indians in territory now occupied by Chile and Argentina. The family was deported from Chile to France in 1863 where it has lived since. On 6 Nov 1903, the Council of Regency met and chose Georges Sénéchal de la Grange to be the new "king," but he declined. From that date on, everything that has been written about the succession is essentially a fabrication by Philippe Paul Alexandre Henri Boiry (b. 1927), who currently claims to be Philippe I. His account runs as follows: the sole heir, and hence successor, of Antoine II was his daughter, Laure Thérèse Cros, veuve Bernard, who "was" queen Laure-Thérèse I from 6 Nov 1903 to her death 12 Mar 1916. There is no documentation of her acting as queen. Prince Philippe has no children. Laure Therese lived (1856-1916).

  • 1905-08 Princess I Njilitimo of Rapang (Indonesia)

She was succeeded by another female ruler; I Tanri.

  • 1906-10 De-facto Regent Itegé Taytu Betul, Ethiopia

She was crowned Queen of Shewa in 1883 and became Itegé (Empress-Consort) of her husband, emperor Menilek II. She acted as regent during his illness. She was very powerful, but still obtained her husband's authorization for her decisions. She was removed by a coup d'Etat in 1910. Born as Walata Mikáel, she lived (1853-1918).

  • 1906-17 Aru I Samatana of Malusetasi (Indonesia)

Succeeded by the male Aru I Makung. The state is also known as Nepo.

  • 1907-11 Rani Imbichi Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

Also known as Imbicchi Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, she succeeded brother, Mohamed Ali-Adi Raja. She was daughter of Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi who reigned 1838-52 in succession to her mother, Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi, who reigned (1819-38). In 1905 her brother, under the heavy burden of debts to the Empire, agreed to surrender sovereignty and control over Minicoy in the Maldive Islands. He died before the formal transfer. And after an attempt to back track, she finally signed over Minicoy to the Emperor Edward VII on 9 February 1909, back dated to 1 July 1905. Following this, Minicoy was annexed to the District of Malabar.

  • 1907-30 Politically Influential Queen Victoria von Baden of Sweden

Influential during reign of husband , King Gustaf V Adolf of Sweden (1858-1958), particularly 1911-14 when she acted as liaison between the king and Premier Karl Staef who did not communicate. She was also the "Head" of the former reigning Holstein-Gottorp-Vasa-family, mother of three sons, and lived (1862-1930).

  • 1907 Rebellion Leader Qiu Jin in China

Also known as Ch’iu Chin, she was one of the pioneers in the fight against the monarchy. She was in exile in Japan until 1906, when she returned to China and worked as a teacher and head-mistress at a school, and was busy building up her own army and was supposed to have become leader of the uprising in Shanghai. But the uprising in the other provinces failed, the Imperial Police caught up with her, she was caught, tortured and executed as the first woman, and already in her own time she was seen as a martyr. She lived (ca. 1875-1907).

  • 1908-12 De-facto Co-Regent, H.I. H. Dowager Empress Xiao Ding Jing Long Yu Huagtaihou of China (13.11-06.12)

1911-12 Empress-Regent (6.12-12.2) Dowager Empress Cixi entrusted a vaguely specified Imperial authority to her and she became the holder of the Imperial Seal and exercised the Imperial authority. In 1911 the regent and father of Emperor Puyi (1906-1908-12-67), Prince Zaifeng, resigned. At 6.12.12 she presided over the final cabinet meeting of the Qing Dynasty and was forced to sign the imperial abdication decree, which abolished the monarchy. Long Yu was niece of Empress Cixi and the childless widow of Emperor Zaitian. She lived (1868-1913).

  • 1908 Lieutenant-Representant HRH Grande Duchesse Maria-Anna da Bragança of Luxembourg (19.03-18.11)

1908-1912 Grande Duchesse Regent (18.11-14.06) She was regent during the illness of her husband, Gand Duke Guillaume (19.3.08-25.12.), and the minority of her daughter Grand-Duchess Marie-Adelheide (25.2-14.6). She was born as Infanta of Portugal and Princess of Bragança, mother of six daughters, and lived (1861-1942).

  • 1908-17 Regent Mugabekazi Nidi Ririkumutima of Burundi (Belgian Colony, Later Independent)

As Queen Mother she was first President of the of Council of Regency for her stepson, Mutaga IV Mbikije (1903-08-15), and then member of the regency for his son Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng (1912-15-66-77). Her full name was, Nidi Ririkumutima Bizama hitanzimiza Mwezi, and she was probably murdered in 1917. Since 1972 the Head of the Sovereign Family has been Crown Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza of Burundi.

  • 1908-18 Paramount Chiefess Madam Hamonya of Nongowa and Pangum (Sierra Leone)

She succeeded her mother, but was a despot and therefore not re-elected as Paramount Chiefess in 1918. Perhaps chief of Kenema as well.

  • 1908-? Princess I Tanri of Rapang (Indonesia)

She succeeded the female ruler I Njilitimo.

  • Until 1908 Princess I Batari of Barru (Indonesia)

Succeeded by the male ruler I Jonjo Karaeng Lewbangparang.

  • 1908-ca. 23 Head of the Sovereign Family Mary Laguna de Perlas of Mosquitos, Nicaragua

Also Known as Princess Mary Clarence, she was daughter of the last king of the Mosquito Indians, Robert Henry Clarence. The area was in independent kingdom 1661-1861 when it became a Nicaraguan reservation and in 1894 it was incorporated in Nicaragua, and her father abdicated he was Hereditary Chief of Mosquito (1873-91-94-1908), who was deposed twice in 1894. He was son of Princess Victoria, Sister of Inez Ana Frederic and Henry Clarence, a Miskito Indian. In the same period another relative, her father's cousin, Robert Frederick seems to have been the Heir Apparent to the Headship of the house. Mother of a son with an unknown husband, Morton Laguna de Perlas, perhaps the same as Norton Cuthbert Clarence, who was mentioned as head of the house in 1977.

  • 1909-25 Politically Active Queen Shahzadi Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia

Her name meant "Queen of the World". She was married to her cousin Mohammad Ali Shah who reigned 1907-09 until he was deposed. She was a strong presence, and she was about to reclaim the throne of Persia for her son Soltan Ahmad Shah, (1898-1909-25-30), after he was deposed, but events had conspired against her. Went with her family into exile in Rome, and lived (1875-?)

  • Around 1909 High Chiefess Te-ha'apapa III of Huahine (Tahiti in French Polynesia)

Daughter of Te-ha'apapa II, and proclaimed High Chiefess after the death of her brother, Marama Teri'i-fa'atau.

  • 1910-28 Regent-in-absentia Infanta Adelgundes de Bragança of Portugal

She was regent for her nephew Dom Duarte (1907/32-?) after her brother Manoel IIs abdication. Manoel died 1932. In 1920 she was created Duqesa de Gumaraes. She was the second wife of Enrico de Parma, Comte de Bondi (1851-1905) who had no children. She lived (1858-1946).

  • 1910-1926 Datuk I Pancaitana Aru Pancana of Tanette (Indonesia)

Successor of another woman, Datuk We Tan-ri-Olle, who ascended to the throne in 1855. I Pancaitana was followed by another woman, I Pateka Tana, who was regent for one year.

  • 1911 Regent H.H. Svasti Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Bada Maharani Revati Raman Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahamam Sada Sabhajnabtinam of Nepal

Regent for stepson Tibhubana (1906-11-55). She was born as Princess from Rajputana or Kangra. She lived (1878-1926).

  • 1911-19 De facto-Ruler Khanum Dondogulam of Mongolia

She influential during the reign of her husband the 8th living Buddha, Jabzandamba Hutagt Bogd Gegeen Ezen Haan (1869-1924), who declared independence from China in 1911. From 1911 real power lay in the hand of Baron Roman Fyodorovich von Ungern (1886-1921) on the one hand and the Chinese governor on the other. Her husband was in office 1911-20 and 1921-24 when the monarchy was abolished. He was the last Holy-King (Bogd Haan) or reincarnated lama ruler.

  • 1911-14 Rebellion Leader Me Katilili of the Giriama Tribe in Kenya

Leader of a rebellion against the British, and lived (1841-1920s).

  • 1912-19 H.G.H. Maria-Adelheide ,By the Grace of God Grande Duchess of Luxembourg (25.02-14.01)

Her Grand Ducal Highness Marie-Adélheïde was also Duchess of Nassau, Countess-Palatine and Electress of the Rhine, Countess of Sayn, Hadenburg, Königstein, Krazenborgen and Dietz, Burgravine of Hammerstein, Dame of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein. The first 4 months her mother acted as regent. In 1914, German troops invaded, in the face of protests from the Grand Duchess and her government. However, the occupation had little effect on the day-to-day government. She saw the death of the Prime Minister, Paul Eyschenin in 1915 as an opportunity to become more involved in the political affairs of the Grand Duchy. In the face of opposition, and in spite of accusations that she was acting outside the spirit of the constitution, she appointed a right-wing minority government. Her actions aroused hostility among the socialists, who had been advocating the abolition of the monarchy since 1907. On the day following the German armistice in 1918, the socialists accused the Grand Duchess of having had a pro-German stance, stemming from her reception of Emperor Wilhelm II in 1914. In January 1919, opposition to the Grand Duchess lead to revolutionary protests, and she was persuaded that she would have to abdicate in order to preserve the monarchy. Her abdication took place on 9 January 1919 and she was succeeded by her sister, Princess Charlotte. Marie-Adelaide became a nun, joining the Carmelite Order in Modena, Italy. She lived (1894-1924).

  • 1913-24 Regent Dowager Rani Soubhagyavati Gajara Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)

Known as Akka Sahib or Yamuna Bai, Regent for stepson after the death of her husband, H.H. Raja Shrimant Shriram Savant Bhonsle, Bahadur, Sir Desai of Savantwadi (1871-1913), Born as H.H. Shrimant Akhand of Akalkot as daughter of Meherban Shrimant Shahaji III Raje Maloji II Raje [Baba Sahib] Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot. Born as Princess of Akalkot in 1887.

  • 1914-1918 De Facto Regent Duchess Viktoria Luise von Prussen of Braunschweig und Lüneburg (Germany) (August-8.11)

She was acting in the place of her husband Ernst August (1887-1913-18-53), the son of the exiled king of Hannover, Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland and Thyra of Denmark. Her husband was given the title of duke of Braunschweig by her father, Emperor Wilhelm III. After the death of her husband she feuded with her children, Ernst August, Queen Frederika of Greece and two others over the inheritance and other financial matters and even took them to court. Viktoria Luise lived (1892-1980).

  • 1915-17 De-facto Regent Imperatitsa Alexandra Fedorovna of the Russian Empire

The Czarina was de-facto in charge of the government business during her husband, Zar/Emperor Nicolai’s time as commander-in-chief during World War I, but she obtained his endorsement of her decisions. In 1918 the whole family - including the four daughters and son were executed during the revolution. She was born as Princess Alix von Hessen und beim Rhein and lived (1872-1918).

  • 1916-30 H.I.M. Negista Nagast Zawdute Menilek of Ethiopia (27.09-02.04)

The full title of the Empress was Her Imperial Majesty Negista Nagast, Queen of Kings, Elect of God and Lion of Judah. She claimed the throne after her father, Melnik II's death in 1913 but her nephew was placed on the throne 1913-16, but newer crowned. Her cousin, Prince Rasta Fari, was regent and succeeded her as Emperor Haile Selassie III. She was married four times and had a daughter (1891-94). Zawdute died of diabetes after having lived (1876-1930).

  • 1916-18 Chieftainess and President of the Council Isabelle Vahine-tua-vira Shaw of Arue (French Polynesia)

Also known as Princesse Joinville, she was daughter of Chiefess Teri'itere Ito-Orai of the Grand Clan Teva, the most important in the Kingdom, and the English Jew Salmon Shaw, a well known mariner of the South Pacific. She was married to Prince H.R.H. Prince Joinville Teri'i-tuariva, Chief of Hita'a, the youngest son of Queen Pomare IV. Mother of Prince Teri'i Hinoi-a-tua Pomare (1869-1916) She (d. 1918).

  • 1917-44 11th Asantehemaa Kwaadu Yaadom II of Asante (Ghana)

She was elected Queen Mother after the death of her mother, Yaa Akyaa. In the period 1900-35 there was no Asantehene or king of the Asante. From 1926-35 the kingdom was ruled by chiefs with the title of Kumasehene. The last of those, Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, began his reign in 1931, became Asantehene in 1935, and ruled until 1970. Konadu Yaadom II was followed on the post by her cousin, Nana Ama Sewas Nyaako, who was in office until 1977.

  • 1917-? Head of the Royal House Princess Ranavalona IV of Madagascar

May Possibly have been Head of the Royal House after the death of Queen Ranavalona III. She was daughter of Prince Andrianaly Rasendranoro.

  • 1918-65 H.M. Kuini Salote Mafile'o Pilolevu Veiongo Tupou III, By the Grace of God Queen of Tonga

Queen Salote Tupou III, she was absolute ruler and President of the Privy Council, the 24th Tu’i Kano’kupolu and 1923-65 Head of the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga, the National (Methodist) Church. Her husband, Prince Uiliame Tupoulahi Tungi, was a member of the nobility and a side-line of the royal family, and held the office of Premier from 1923, until his death in 1941. She then appointed her son, the crown prince, as Premier. He succeeded her as Tauf’ahau Toupu IV (1918-1965-). She was the other of three sons, and lived (1900-65).

  • 1918-27 Joint Regent Lady Surma d'Mar Shimun of the Assyrian Nation (Iraq)

In 1918 her brother, the Catholics Patriarch of the Church of the East and leader of the Assyrians Mar Benyamin (Benajmin) Shimun, was assassinated by the Kurdish rebel, Simco and was succeeded by her younger brother, Mar Paulus Shimun XXII. Surma Khanum practically became regent, and in 1918 she was invited by British authorities to present the Assyrian question in London and she also attended the Treaty of Versaille negotiations, probably as the only woman regent. The descendants of the Assyrian Empire had lived as a semi-independent nation in the Kurdish mountains, but they were massacred and driven out by the Ottomans in 1915. In return they were promised an independent homeland by Britain, France, and Russia in 1918 in Northern Iraq - the Mosul district - but this promise was not fulfilled. Mar Paulus died of tuberculosis 1920 and was succeeded by his 12 years old nephew, Mar Ishaia Shimun XXIII, (1908-75), who was also assassinated. When Mar Ishaia went to school in England until 1927, she assisted the Metropolitans Mar Yosip Khnanishoo of Rustaqa in Church affairs and was in charge of the secular affairs together with her brother, General David d'Mar Shimun, father of the Patriarch. Throughout Mar Eshai's life continued to act as a consultant, given her temporal and secular expertise. 1928 she heitantly accepted an O.E.B. from the British authorities. At the time of the disturbances in 1933 in Iraq, the Patriarchal family were taken to Cyprus, where they remained until 1949 when they moved to USA. The Assyrians became Christians in the 1st Century and are today followers of the ancient church of the East, the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Chaldean Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. and because of the Patriarchal succession from uncle to nephew for 652 years, she was also the niece, great niece, etc. to numerous Patriarchs. (d. 1975).

  • 1918-21 Politically Influential First Lady Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, USA (25.9-20.1)

In 1915 she married president Woodrow Wilson, whose first wife was Ellen Louise Axon (1860-1914). Edith Bolling was a close confidant in all his decisions, and took part in the cabinet-meetings. In 1918 Wilson suffered a stroke and was secluded from the public, and she became the de-facto ruler, though she always insisted she was only acting on his orders. President Wilson was in office (1912-21) and lived (1856-1924). Ellen Bolling lived (1872-1961).

  • 1919-64 HRH. Charlotte, By the Grace of God Grande Duchesse of Luxembourg (15.01-12.11)

1940-44 Leader of the Government-in-Exile from London (10.05-10.09) When her sister, Marie-Adelaide, abdicated, support for the monarchy was at an all-time low and it was made clear that, if the monarchy were to survive at all, Charlotte would have to remain above political affairs. The Constitution was amended, limiting the monarch's formal powers. These acts restored the reputation of the monarchy, and in a referendum on 28.09 1919, 77.8% voted in favour of the monarchy. On 10.05 1940 the German Army invaded, and she went into exile with her family, determined to avoid capture by the Germans, and eventually settled in London, where the exile-government was already operating. She maintained contact with her people through regular radio broadcasts on the BBC. The years following the war were marked by a period of reconstruction, during which the Grand Duchess symbolised the solidarity of the Luxembourg people. She made numerous official visits abroad, promoting her small nation's position on the international stage. During the 1950s, she sold off many of the family's properties in Germany, including Biebrich Palace in Wiesbaden and Hohenburg Castle in Bavaria, reinforcing Luxembourg's position as the permanent home of the grand-ducal family. In 1961 her son, Jean, was appointed regent and in 1964 she abdicated in his favour. Married to Prince Felix de Bourbon-Parma (1893-1970), and mother of six children. She lived (1896-1985).

  • 1919-29 Politically Influential H.M. Queen Soraya Shah of Afganistan

She influenced her husband, King Amanulluh Shah, who was one of the most liberal rulers of the country. He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited, women got right to choose their own husband, etc. In 1928 Soraya and her daughters appeared unveiled. Conservative forces forced her husband to abdicate in 1929, and they went into exile first in India and then in Rome. She was his third husband, he married two more times, and lived (1892-1960) She was the daughter of Mahmud Beg Tarzi, sometime Minister for Foreign Affairs, and lived (1897-1968)..

  • 192..-1952 Maori Leader Princess Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Hērangi in New Zealand

Te Puea was educated in Màori beliefs, values, and culture. Her leadership in the Kìngitanga movement thus became established, and she became determined to create a centre for the movement. After the devastating influenza epidemic of 1918, she gathered up 100 orphaned children and founded the community at Ngàruawahia now known as Tùrangawaewae. Over many years she played a leading role in negotiating settlements for the confiscation of Waikato land, and achieved a measure of financial compensation which enabled her people to pursue economic and educational goals. She had no offspring with her husband, Rewi Tumoko Katipa, but she adopted many children, and one of the many babies for whom Te Puea cared was her grandniece, who is the current Maori Queen. The daughter of Tahuna Herangi and Princess Tiahuia, and grand-daughter of King Tawhiao, she was made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1937, and lived (1884 - 1952).

  • 1920 Regent H.M. Dowager Queen Olga of Greece (18.11-11.12)

Born HIH Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna Romanova of Russia, she was acting head of state after her grandson Alexander I (1917-20) had died after a monkey bite, until her son Contantinos I returned to take over the throne a second time - he reigned (1913-17) and (1920-22). She lived (1851-1926).

  • 1920-21 Joint Proprietor Ann Eliza Carruthers-Jennings of Swain Island (American Samoa)

She was joint managing owner with her brother, Alexander Hutchinson Jennings, and was married to the Britton, Irving H. Carruthers, who had been named executor and trustee, and they lived in American Samoa. The 3.25 square kilometer ring of land surrounding a brackish lagoon never recognized by the international community, that behaved as an independent state until 1925, when annexed by the USA. Culturally and geographically it belongs to the Tokelau Islands, but today it is part of American Samoa, and is still owned by the Jennings family. She lived (1897-1923).

  • 1921-23 Regent-in-absentia Dowager Queen Milena Vukotić of Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

Her husband, King Nikola Petrović-Njegos (1860-1921) was forced into exile after the Serbian occupation in 1918. After his death their son, Danilo, proclaimed himself king, but he abdicated after one week in favor of nephew, and Milena was regent for grandson King Michael (1908-86) also after the Serbian annexation. Mother of 12 children. Lived (1847-1923).

  • 1921-31 Rani Ayisha Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)

She succeeded Ahmad Adi-Raja Bibi and was succeeded by Abdul-Rahman Ali Adi-Raja II.

  • 1921-? Regent Dowager Rani Saida of Badalpur (India)

She was regent for grand-son who studied in United Kingdom.

  • 1921-1939 Al-Sitt Nazira Jumblatt of the Druze of Lebanon

Her husband, Fouad Jumblatt was murdered by Shakib Wahab, a member of the Arslan clan. Her son Kamal Jumblatt was four years old, and grew up in an atmosphere of tight security and fear due to his mother Nazira's continued support of the Lebanese state and its French patrons. When the Druze in Syria revolted against the French in 1925 , Nazira played a key role in keeping the Shouf mostly out of war and worked tirelessly to find common ground among the French authorities, the Maronites and the Druze. Her son studied in France until 1939, and later became one of the chief acteurs in the civil war from the 1970s onward until his assassination.

  • 1922-32 Regent and President of the State Council Maharani Siniti Devi of Cooch-Behar (India)

Eldest daughter of Babu Keshab Chandra Sen and to Colonel H.H. Maharaja Shri Sir Nripendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur, Maharaja of Cooch Behar (1862-63-1911), she was regent for grandson, Jagaddipendra Narayan (1915-22-47-70). She lived (1864-1932).1922-32 Member of the State Council

  • 1932-36 Regent and President Maharani Indra Devi Sahiba of Cooch-Behar (India)

Regent for son, Jagaddipendra Narayan (1915-22-47-70). Born as Princess of Baroda, and lived (1892-1968).

  • 1922-36 Rani Profulla Kumari Devi of Bastar (India)

Succeeded Rudra Pratab Deo, who had been raja for about a year, and was succeeded by Dravir Chandra Deo, who got the title of Maharaja. She lived (1910-36).

  • 1922-? Adatuwang I Ba Eda of Sawito (Indonesia)

One of her predecessors was Pasule Daeng Bulaeng who ruled 1870-86.

  • Until 1922 Chiefess Mukunde of Wikangulu (Tanzania)
  • 1922-35 Chiefess Alice Brown Davis of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma (USA)

She was prominent in tribal affairs for much of her life. In 1922 she was appointed principal chief by President Warren G. Harding in order to facilitate the closing of the tribal land affairs. Although she was not the first woman to be chief of an Indian tribe, she was the first woman to head the Seminole Nation. There was some controversy over the appointment, but eventually she was accepted by both her own people and outsiders. Although she was appointed, and not elected in the Seminole tradition, she was well thought of and well respected and the people were happy with having her as Chief. The tribal land affairs, which she had been appointed to resolve, became a source of contention between Alice and the government. A survey conducted in 1910 had shifted the old boundaries between the Creek and Seminole Nations, and the new boundaries transferred several important parcels of land to the Creeks, and she refused to sign the deeds transferring them to the Creek Nation or the federal government, on the grounds that it was morally wrong for her to pass a most valuable tract of land out of the hands of the destitute Seminole people. Alice continued to serve the Seminoles as chief until her death on June 21, 1935. She received many posthumous awards recognizing her achievements. She lived (1852-1935).

  • 1922-30/33 Acting Head-in-exile of the Sovereign Family Dowager Empress Zita de Bourbon Parma of Austria-Hungaria

Her husband, Emperor Karl was Austrian head of state 1916-18 and nominal head of State in Hungary till his death in 1922. She acted as head of the family as regent for her son, Archduke Otto (b. 1912-), the oldest of 8 children. Otto has later relinquished all claims of the Austrian-Hungarian throne and was Member of the European Parliament for Germany as Dr. Otto Habsburg. Zita was the 17th of 24 children of Duke Carlos III of Parma-Piacenza. Her younger brother, Felix (1893-1970), was married to Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. Zita lived (1892-1989).

  • 1923-36 Regent Dowager H.H Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Akalot (India)

After her husband, Captain Meherban Shrimant Fatehsingh III Shahaji Raje Sahib Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot (1894-96-1923), was killed by accidental poisoning at the Sassoon Hospital, she acted as regent for son Meherban Shrimant Vijayasinhrao Fatehsinhrao Raje Sahib Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot (1915-23-47-52), who signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India, August 1947. He was succeeded by his younger brother. She was daughter of second daughter of Meherban Shrimant Rajamanya Rajashri Sir Pirajirao Bapu Sahib Ghatge, Chief of Kagal, and was also known as Lakshmi Bai [Akka Sahib], she lived (1899-1942)

  • From 1923 Ratu Donna Maria da Costa of Djeniloe (Indonesia)

She was daughter of Petronella da Costa, who ruled (1879-99) and after her brother, Raja Josef da Costa, died, she started to behave as ruler of the territory even though it had been merged into a larger federation ruled by Raja Josef, and although the Dutch already appointed a Fettor Bone Rea, a sub-raja).Twice she was asked to leave, although as real ruling ruler she had not much influence ,but her presence in Djeniloe as nominal-Ratu was a bit a disturbance. The first time she refused totally to go.Later she would be more indulgent. She and her sister and brothers were of the then very rare Dasi Raan nobilty - only children from children of children from royal blooded people along the line.

  • 1923-24 Queen Mother Gagoangwe a Setsehele of baNgwaketse

(British Protectorate, Botswana) She acted as regent after her son, Seepapitoso II, was murdered. She lived (1848-1924).

  • 1924-28 Queen-Sister Ntebogang a Bathoen of baNgwaketse

(British Protectorate, Botswana) After her grandmother died, she acted as regent, and in 1928 she appointed her 20 year old brother, Bathoen Seepapitso Gaseitsiwe, as her successor, and he reigned as Bathoen II until his death in 1969. She lived (1882-1979).

  • 1924-28 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet A.F. Nuortueva, Karelia (United Socialist Soviet Republics)

The position was equivalent to that of Heads of State of the Soviet Republics, though power were vested in the First Secretary of the Communist Party. The previously autonomous republic was incorporated in Russia in 1956. She lived (1881-1929).

  • 1925-31 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Chinku Bai Raje Sahib Scindia of Gwalior (India)

Regent for son Maharaja Georges Jivaye Rao Scindia (1916-25-61) after the death of her husband, Maharaja Sir Madho Rao Scindia Bahadur ( 1876-86-1925). Maharani Chinku was also Colonel-in-Chief 2nd 'Ali Jah' Gwalior Lancers. (d. 1931).

  • 1925-38 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Lomawa Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland

Ndlovukati means Queen Mother, The Great She-elephant. She was the mother of King Sobhuza II, and lived (1878-1938).

  • 1925-1949 Head of the Sovereign Family Princess Maria Josepha Sophia de Iturbide of Mexico (Titular Empress)

She inherited the claim to the throne from her uncle, who was grand-nephew of Don Augustin de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico 1821-23, and was adopted by Emperor Maximillian, thereby inheriting the Habsburg claim on the throne. Maria Josepha was a very traditional lady, and a devout Roman Catholic, and stayed as far away from politics as she could. After World War II the Princess and her husband were imprisoned in Romania by the invading communist government as "class enemies". The couple died shortly thereafter under mysterious circumstances. Upon her death, according to her will and the agreement of her two daughters, the leadership of the Mexican Imperial Family passed to her grandson, Count Maximiliano Gustav Albrecht Richard Agustin von Goetzen Iturbide, who had been born in Hungary in 1944.Maria Josepha lived (1872-1949).

  • 1926-31 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Lakshmi Devi Bai Sahiba of Dhar (India)

She was Superintendent, Court of Wards and Controller of the Household in 1912-1913 and later she acted as regent for her adopted son, her nephew. She was born as Hansa Bai Raje Sahiba of Savantwadi, was appointed Dame Commander of the British Empire, DBE, and lived (1890-1931).

  • 1926-27 Regent Datuk I Pateka Tana of Tanette (Indonesia)

After the death of the female ruler, Datuk I Pancaitana, she was for one year until Andi Basso became regent.

  • 1926-41 and 1958-71 Queen Kanuni I of Uukwangali (Namibia)

Uukwangali is the name of a kingdom and of one of the tribes of Namibia. She was forced by the native commissioner in the Kavango, Eedes, into exile in Angola, and she was succeeded by king Sivute, who ruled until 1958 when she returned and ruled until 1971.(d 1978).

  • Around 1926 Chief Ng’endo of Nkokolo (Tanzania)

It is not known precisely when she succeeded her aunt, Muyelaansime, but she is known to have been ruling in 1926. She was succeeded by son, Kasivilo, who in 1934 was succeeded by her brother’s daughter, Sala.

  • 1926-57 Titular Head of the Royal Family Princess Bamba Sophia Jingan (Maharani Duleep Singh) of Punjab (India)

She was the daughter of the last Maharajadhuraja Duleep Singh Bahadur (1843-93) and (self-proclaimed?) successor of her brother as titular head. Married to an Englishman and also known as Princess Bamba Sutherland. She lived (1869-1957).

  • 1927-74 Dame Sibyl Mary Beaumont Hathaway of Sark (Channel Island)

Also known as La Dame du Serq, she succeeded her father William Collings as the 21st Seigneur of the Sark. Her second husband, Robert Hathaway (1888-1954) became Seigneur in the right of his wife in accordance with the ancient custom, but Sibyl remained firmly in charge. She was also president and member of a number of committees of the Chief Pleas. She appointed her youngest daughter Jehanne Bell as Deputy Seigneur 1946-68. She was knighted by Queen Elizabeth and granted the title Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Sibyl outlived all but two children and was succeeded by her grandson. She lived (1884-1974)

  • 1927-42 Shrimant Sitabaisaheb Bhalchandrarao Patwardhan of Kurandvad (India)

Her principality was independent until 1947 when it became part of the Republic of India. She was known as "Mai Sahib", and lived (1901-42).

  • 1927-75 Partner in Power First Lady Soong Mayling , China and Taiwan

Known in the west as Madame Chiang Kai-shek, she became famous during the Chinese Nationalists' battle against the Japanese and the Chinese Communists. Madame Chiang took on the role of a diplomat and spokesperson for the Republic of China on Taiwan. In the 1930s, she headed the Chinese air force and made many campaigns to engage U.S. support for the Nationalists. Her husband, General Chiang Kai-shek, was president of mainland nationalist China 1927-49, and of Taiwan until his death in 1975. Mayling' sister Song Qingling, vice-premier and vice-president and acting head of state of Communist China. After her husband's death, Mayling moved to New York . She lived (1897-2003).

  • 1927-30 Guardian Queen-Mother Helena of Greece and Denmark of Romania

1940-47 Politically Influential After her ex-husband, King Carol, had abdicated, her brother-in-law Prince Nicolaus became regent for her minor son, King Michael, and she was given the title of Queen Mother. In 1930-40 Carol was king again, until Michael was reinstated as king, and she was his chief advisor until he was forced to abdicate by the communists in 1947.

  • 1928-29 and 1936 Counsellor of State HM Queen Mary of Teck of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

She was one of 6 Counselors of State appointed during the illness of her husband, King Georges V of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India, Defender of Faith, at the 4th of December 1928. It is not clear for how long, but the king was ill until the summer of 1929, the soon experienced a backlash until sometime in the beginning of 1930. Mary was born as Princess of Teck and lived (1867-1953).

  • 1928-43-? Chief Mali II of Khaha (South Africa)

Initially she was installed as chief after her father's death, but as she refused to give up her husband (as Mali I did), she resigned and instead acted as regent for minor brother.

  • 1929-62 Chief Mugalula II of Kiwele (Tanzania)

Daughter of Msavila and succeeded brother. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

  • 1930-40 Regent Dowager Maharani Kumari Shri Tejkunuerba of Barwani (India)

She was regent for son Maharaja Shri Devi singhij Bahadur Rana of Barwani Born as Princess of Idar. (b. 1922).

  • 1930-62 Politically Influential Menem Asfaw of Ethiopia

Married the regent Ras Tafari in 1911. Early in his reign an army revolt broke out and he was taken hostage. She commandeered a tank and drove it herself trough the garrison's gate to free her husband. In exile during the Italian occupation. After the restoration in 1941 she was Emperor Hailie Selassie IIIs closest advisor on all aspects. She lived (1869-1962).

  • 1930-40 Politically Influential Elena Lupescu, Romania

She dominated her weak lover, Carol II, who returned from exile, and pushed his son with his ex-wife, Princess and Queen Mother Maria aside. She was very conservative and anti-progressive, and in 1940 Carol was forced to abdicate, in favor of his son, ex-king Michael. The couple got married in 1947, and he died 6 years later. She was created Princess von Hohenzollern, and lived (1902-77).

  • 1931 Umugabekazi Nyiaranauugo III Kankazi of Burundi

She became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) (12.11-16.11) after the death of her husband. Burundi was a Belgian colony at the time.

  • 1931-36 President of the Council of Regency H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Gajra Bai Raje Sahib Scindia of Gwalior (India)

After the death of his mother, Maharani Chinku, she was regent for stepson Maharaja Georges Jivaye Rao Scindia (1916-25-61). (d. 1943).

  • 1931-after 66 Owner Frances Highly Kroening of Takuu (Mortlock) Island (Papua New Guinea)

After her mother, Mrs. Highly Calder, died after a dynamite accident, she inherited her interests in the island group, approximately 250 Kilometers North East of Bougainville, which consists of a circular reef bearing 13 islets and three sand cays. Frances was married to a German medical officer, Dr. Bruno Kroening, and in 1931 she was living at Kieta in Bougainville. During World War II, the Japanese bombed the coconut groves on the Mortlocks for no apparent reason, but little damage was done and no one was injured. In 1966 Frances Kroening still had her interest in the property, and was now working the property in association with the islanders.

  • 1931-62 Politically Influential Princess Gagiomakwe K. Sechele of BaKwena (Botswana)

She had already been politically active in the 1920s, before becoming very influential during the reign of her husband Paramount Chief Kagari Sechele II (1875-1911-18),). She continued to be politically active even after is death.

  • 1932-19.. "Head Woman" Frances Repetto, Tristan da Cunha (Dependency of St.Helena (United Kingdom Dependency))

The Head-Women was chairwomen of the Women's Council, which was ( concerned with the welfare of women and children. She was the mother of one of the Head Men of the Islands

  • Before 1933 -ca.1949 Makea Nui Ariki Tinirau, Queen of Rarotonga Makea Nui Tinirau, Paramount Ariki of the Cook Islands (New Zealand External Territory)

Apparently the mother of Makea Nui Teremona Ariki Tapuanoanoa Tinirau Cowan.

  • 1934-43 Guardian Dowager Queen Maria of Romania of Yugoslavia

After her husband, King Alexander, was assassinated in France, his cousin, Prince Paul was regent for King Peter until 1941 when the family was forced into exile. She lived (1900-61).

  • Until 1934 Chief Musonga II of Ipito (Tanzania)

She succeeded father Ivata, she was deposed and succeeded by sister.

  • 1934-62 Chief Ng’endo of Ipito (Tanzania)

Daughter of Ivata and succeeded sister Musonga II. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

  • 1934-62 Chief Sala of Nkokolo (Tanzania)

Succeeded cousin, the male chief Kasivilo. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

  • 1935-49 Vice-President of the State Council and President of the Cabinet Princess Abida Sultan Begum of Bhopal (India)

1960-61 Titular Nawab Sahiba , Begum Sultan of Bhopal Her full name is Colonel Suraya Jah, Gauhar-i-Taj, Nawab Abida Sultan Begum Sahiba, but is normally known as Begum Abida Sultan. She was appointed as Heir Apparent to her father and recognized as such by the Indian government in 1928. In 1950 she moved to Pakistan. were she was a Delegate to UN in 1954, Ambassador to Brazil and Chile 1954-59. She was also an active politician and supporter of Miss Fatima Jinnah's candidacy for President of Pakistan. She Contested the succession after the death of her father, HH Sikander Savlat Ifrikar il-Mulk Haji Sir Muhammad Hamidullah Khan Badur, in February 1960, but the Indian government ruled against her in January 1961 in favor of her sister, H.H.Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (1960-95). Aida is (b.1913-).

  • Before 1935-ca. 94 Makea Karika Margaret Ariki (Makea Karika Ariki Takau), The Cook Islands (New Zealand External Territory)

Margaret Tarau was President of the House of Arikis 1978-80 and 1990-94. She lived (1919-ca. 94).

  • Ca. 1936-43 Queen Aline Sitoé Diatta of the Diola Tribe in Casamance (Senegal)

She was deposed by the French because of her opposition to their rule. In 1943 the French attacked her capital, she surrendered, was arrested and sent into exile in Timbuktu, where she died the following year. She lived (ca. 1920-44) .

  • 1937-47 H.H. Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Parvati Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)

After the death of her husband, H.H. Raja Shrimant Sir Khem Savant V [Bapu Sahib] Bhonsle Bahadur, she was regent for stepson H.H. Raja Shrimant Shivram Savant [Baba Sahib] Bhonsle, Also known as Lakshmi Devi, she was born as Princess of Baroda, and lived (1907-61).

  • 1937-47 Regent The Maharani of Mudhol (India)

She was married to HH Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhraje Malojirao Ghorpade and was regent or guardian for her son HH Shrimant Raja Sir Meherban Malojirao Venkatrao Ghorpade, who is also known as Nanasaheb (b. 1929-). The British Resident was in charge of the government.

  • 1937 Joint Acting Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee Maryam Tugambayeva, Kyrgyzstan (16.09-0 4.10)

Acted jointly as Head of State of the Soviet Socialist Republic together with Mikhail Ivanovich Us. She (b. 1906/07 - d. ...).

  • 1938 Acting Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee Kalima Amankulova, Kyrgyzstan (15.05- 18.07)

As Chairman of the Central Executive Committee she was Head of State of the Soviet Socialist Republic.

  • 1938 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nadezhda Grigoryevna Grek, Belarus (25.-27.07)

As Chairman of the Supreme Soviet she was also Head of State of the Soviet Socialist Republic for a few days. (b. 1915).

  • 1938-57 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Nukwase Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland

She was married to one of king Sobhuza II 's 12 uncles, Prince Malunge Dlamini (1877-1915). She lived (1880-1957).

  • 1939, 1943 and 1944 Counsellor of State HRH The Duchess of Fife, Princess Alexandra Duff of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Alexandra Duff, daughter of Princess Louise, The Princess Royal and 1st. Duke of Fife, Earl MacDuff and Chief of the Clan of Fife, was created a princess in 1905 together with her sister, Princess Maud. Alexandra was married to her cousin HRH The Duke of Connaught, Prince Arthur, former Governor-General of South Africa. He died in 1942, their son was killed in 1942 and she was succeeded by her sister's son. She lived (1891-1957).

  • 1939 "Possible Throne Candidate" Elena of Montenegro of "The Kingdom of Croatia"

During World War II, two years before Germany invaded southern Yugoslavia and Greece (through Bulgaria) in April 1941, Italy was busy planning, once the war had been won, to restore Montenegro as an independent kingdom as well as to create a new kingdom of Croatia. Originally the idea was to make either Prince Michael or Prince Roman, both member s of the ruling Petrovitch family, into king but neither accepted, believing that eventually Italy and Germany would be defeated. Then it was proposed that Queen Elena, wife of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, who had been born a Montenegrin princess, should be proclaimed Queen in her own right. This pleased her, but no-one else; and eventually the appointment of one or more native-born 'Regents' was discussed. Born as Elena Petrovitch Niégoch, she lived (1873-1952).

Miks see märkus alguses on? Andres (arutelu) 5. märts 2017, kell 12:13 (EET)Reply[vasta]

Usutavasti siiski San Marino riigipead ei olnud siiski tükid.  • • • Kasutaja:Ahsoous • arutelu • 5. märts 2017, kell 14:02 (EET)Reply[vasta]

Vabandage, aga ka kuningannad ja naisvaaraod on ikkagi riigipead olnud... Monarhid peaksid minu meelest olema samas tabelis või siis peaks nimetus olema teine - Melilac (arutelu) 6. märts 2017, kell 19:29 (EET)Reply[vasta]

Jap, igasugused valitsevad kuningannad, keisrinnad, vürstinnad, hertsoginnad, naisvaaraod on samavõrra riigipead kui presidendid, ülemnõukogu presiidiumi esinaised jms. Kui neid siia sisse ei tule, siis on artikli pealkiri ja sisu omavahel vastuolus. -- Toomas (arutelu) 6. märts 2017, kell 20:02 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Inglisviki artikli pealkiri ütleb väga palju ära ehk siis selle siinse loendi kohta võib öelda taaskord - tõlkes kadumqa läinud.  • • • Kasutaja:Ahsoous • arutelu • 6. märts 2017, kell 20:16 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Jah, õigus, ma ei vaadanudki, millest see on tõlgitud. Seal tõesti vastuolu puudub, siin on aga originaalpealkirja osaliselt tõlkimata jätmise tõttu täiesti olemas. -- Toomas (arutelu) 6. märts 2017, kell 20:20 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Nojah, aga mis teha? Ümber nimetada? Monarhid lisada? - Melilac (arutelu) 7. märts 2017, kell 18:32 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Miks mitte lisada? Andres (arutelu) 7. märts 2017, kell 18:45 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Tegelikult pooldan ka seda varianti, ei ole kuningannal ja presidendil see vahe nii suur ühtigi. - Melilac (arutelu) 8. märts 2017, kell 10:37 (EET)Reply[vasta]
Ma olen ka pigem nõus, et siis kõik naisriigipead kokku panna. Kui on soovi, võib ju sama artikli sees teha kaks tabelit – monarhid ja valitud/määratud riigipead eraldi. Nii on ehk lihtsam ka orienteeruda ja ei lähe üks tabel meeletult pikaks. Teine variant on teha tabelid mingite ajaperioodide (sajandite vms) lõikes. Oluline on see, et lugejal oleks lihtne artiklist infot üles leida. -- Toomas (arutelu) 8. märts 2017, kell 10:55 (EET)Reply[vasta]

Khural peaks eesti keeles olema huraal. -- 24. detsember 2018, kell 00:25 (EET)Reply[vasta]