Kanep (droog)

Allikas: Vikipeedia
Disambig gray.svg  See artikkel räägib droogist; mõnuaine kohta vaata artiklit Kanep (mõnuaine); perekonna kohta vaata artiklit Kanep

Kanep ehk meditsiiniline kanep on taimset päritolu droog.[1]

Meditsiinilise kanepi all peetakse silmas kanepi (Cannabis) perekonna taimeosade kasutamist meditsiinilistel eesmärkidel, sh mitmete haiguslike seisundite ravil. Droogil on leebe psühhotroopne toime ja väljastatakse seda raviarstide poolt vastavuses iga riigi seadusandliku regulatsiooniga.

Meditsiinilist kanepit väljastatakse vastavalt etteantud kogustele õisikutena, mida manustatakse patsientidele kas aurustamise, suitsetamise, söögi või ekstraktide ja kapslite kaudu.

Erinevad ürdid ja nende ära märkimine[muuda | redigeeri lähteteksti]

Erinevate haiguslike seisundite ravil või teraapia osana kasutatakse erinevaid drooge. Nende THC sisaldus on varieeruv seetõttu kasutatakse droogi nimetuses ka taimeliigi nimetusi:

Ravitoime teaduslik uurmine ja tulemused[muuda | redigeeri lähteteksti]

Tõestatud on meditsiinilise kanepi kasutegur iivelduse, oksendamise, premenstruaalne sündroomi, tahtmatu kehakaalu languse, unetuse ja isupuuduse ravis. Täheldatud on ravitoimet spastilisuse, valulikkust põhjustavate terviserikete, peamiselt närvivalude, astma ning glaukoom puhul.[2]

Esialgsed tulemused näitavad, et kanepipõhised ravimid võivad osutuda kasulikuks soolepõletiku, migreeni, fibromüalgia ja nendega seotud vaevuste ravimisel.[3]

On täheldatud, et meditsiiniline kanep leevendab tänu oma lihaseid lõõgastavale toimele mõningaid seljaaju vigastuste sümptomeid.[4]

Kanepi kasutamine ei seondu dopamiinitasemete kõikumisega [5]

Muud uuringud leiavad, et kanep või kannabinoidid võivad olla kasulikud ravimaks alkoholi kuritarvitamist,[6] lateraalskleroosi,[7][8] kollageenist põhjustatud artriiti,[9] astmat,[10] ateroskleroosi,[11] bipolaarset häiret,[12][13] pärasoolevähki,[14] HIV-ga seotud sensoorset neuropaatiat,[15] depressiooni,[16][17][18][19] düstooniat,[20] epilepsiat,[21][22][23] seedimishaigusi,[24] glioome,[25][26] C-hepatiiti,[27] Huntingtoni tõbe,[28] leukeemiat,[29] nahakasvajaid,[30] Parkinsoni tõve,[31] traumajärgset stressi,[32] psoriaasi,[33] uneapnoet,[34] ja anoreksiat.[35]

Arvatakse, et kanepitaimede erinevates osades sisalduvad kannabinoidid nagu Δ9-tetrahüdrokannabinool ehk THC ja paljud teised kannabionoidid käivitavad kasvajarakkudes autofaagia.[36][37][38]

Täpset loodusliku kanepi toimet inimeste (aga ka kõikide teiste loomade kellel on tuvastatud kannabinoid-retseptorid (ingl k cannabinoid-receptor) (G-valgu rühma ingl k G-protein) mitmetes kudedes: CT1ajus ja südames ning veresoontes, CT2- lümfisüsteemi T-rakud ning B-rakud jm käesoleval ajal ei tunta.

Kõrvaltoimed[muuda | redigeeri lähteteksti]

Kanepi kasutamisega võivad kaasnevad osadel meestel erektsioonihäired.[41]

Vaata ka[muuda | redigeeri lähteteksti]

Viited[muuda | redigeeri lähteteksti]

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  20. Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM (2002). "Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia". Movement Disorders 17 (1): 145–9. doi:10.1002/mds.1280. PMID 11835452. 
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  28. Mall:Cite pmid
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  31. Kreitzer AC, Malenka RC (2005). "Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease models". Nature 445 (7128): 643–7. doi:10.1038/nature05506. PMID 17287809. Lay summary – Stanford University School of Medicine (7 February 2007). 
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  33. Mall:Cite pmid
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  35. Grotenhermen, Russo. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential . New York: The Hawthorn Integrative Healing Press, 2002,. Grotenhermen, “Review of Therapeutic Effects.” Chapter 11, p. 128
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  37. [http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=5836
  38. http://www.norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=6267]
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  40. [4]
  41. Tõlkijad Merle Nuia, Ester Pihl,"Seksuaalsus", AS Medicina, lk 438, 2009, ISBN 978 9985 829 89 9

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